An Essay on the Antient and Modern State of Ireland

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The State Examinations Commission also provides examinations in a range of subjects in the language area referred to as the non-curricular EU languages.

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These are languages which do not appear as part of the normal school curriculum but which students may opt to be examined in if they meet certain criteria. Chief among these conditions are the requirements that candidates for these examinations : Be from a member state of the European Union Speak the language in which they opt to be examined in as a mother tongue, Have followed a programme of study leading to the Leaving Certificate Be taking Leaving Certificate English Another condition is that candidates may undertake examination in one non-curricular language subject only.

From time to time the SEC, and prior to the Department of Education and Skills, have received requests to provide examinations for native speakers in their mother tongue. The policy has been to accede to these requests in the case of the national languages of EU states in line with the commitment made by member states under Article of the Treaty of Nice. This states that "Community action shall be aimed at developing the European dimension in education, particularly through the teaching and dissemination of the languages of the Member States.

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School candidates can register for the non-curricular language examinations through their schools and candidates studying outside of school or non-school attending candidates i. Westmeath N37 TP65 E-mail: entries examinations.

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Westmeath, N37 TP Tel: Fax: Email us: Click here. Page last updated: January 16 , GMT. By Mr. In Four Volumes. Gustavus Vasa, the Deliverer of his Country.

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Reports of half-hangings, floggings, pitch-cappings and house-burnings conducted principally by the North Cork Militia, under the direction of loyalist magistrates, inflamed that part of County Wexford that bordered on Wicklow, and induced panic everywhere. On 26th May came stunning news of the summary execution of some 34 suspected United Irishmen at Dunlavin, in south Wicklow; and there was a further report that at Carnew, across the border in Wexford, 35 prisoners had been summarily executed.

Fevered rumours of extirpation now appeared to have substance. In terror, the peasantry - United Irishmen or not - prepared to resist.

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This victory in an open engagement, the first such for the rebels anywhere, electrified the county, tempting many to join in who might otherwise have hung back. Undoubtedly, it also had the effect of re-igniting the rebellion in those areas near Dublin in which it had shown every sign of petering out; and in a broader context, news of the rebels' success at Oulart sparked off renewed efforts to raise the hitherto quiescent north-east of Ireland, principally counties Antrim and Down.

On 29th May, under the command of Father Murphy of Boolavogue, a priest who had been in dispute with his bishop and who had reluctantly stepped forward as leader, the Wexford insurgents, gaining strength as they advanced, stormed Enniscorthy.

The defences of the town were swept aside by means of a stampede of cattle, and behind the terrified animals came the rebels. The next day the rebel army, by now possibly 15, strong, turned its attention to Wexford town. Plans to defend the county capital were given up on news of the destruction of the approaching relief column, and the town was abandoned by its defenders. The fall of Wexford was the highpoint of the rebellion in the south-east: thereafter, the rebels' campaign met with devastating defeats at New Ross, Arklow and Newtownbarry and these had the effect of corralling them within the county.

Demoralised, and having suffered thousands of casualties, the rebels fell back to re-group on Vinegar Hill, outside Enniscorthy. On receipt of news of the fighting in Leinster, there had been a stormy meeting of the Ulster Provincial Council of the United Irishmen on 29th May, at which there were loud protests at the failure to rise in support. The existing leadership was accused of having 'completely betrayed the people both of Leinster and Ulster' and it was promptly deposed. New men, Henry Joy McCracken among them, were now appointed and plans were hurriedly made for a rising.

On 7th June a large number of rebels assembled in different parts of County Antrim. In Ballymena, the green flag was raised over the market house, and there were attacks on Larne, Glenarm, Carrickfergus, Toomebridge and Ballymoney. The rebels, almost entirely Presbyterian, captured Antrim town for a few hours but were then driven out 'with great slaughter' by government artillery fire.

An attempted mobilisation in County Derry had come to nothing, and by the evening of 8th June, the Antrim rebels had also lost heart and had begun drifting home. Some weeks later McCracken was captured and executed. As the rising in County Antrim, and elsewhere was petering out, on 10th June known thereafter as 'Pike Sunday' the United Irishmen in the adjacent County Down began to assemble their forces.

This was under the command of Henry Monro, a shopkeeper from Newtownards and, ironically, a direct descendant of General Robert Monro who had commanded the Scottish force in Ulster in the wars of the s. At Ballynahinch, some 12 miles from Belfast, the rebels were routed on 12thth June, suffering several hundred casualties.

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Military losses were three dead and some thirty wounded. The rebellion in the north-east was over. On 21st June, General Gerard Lake attempted to surround Vinegar Hill with some 20, men, in four columns of soldiers, in order to prevent a rebel breakout. Battle was joined.

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It lasted about two hours: the rebels were mercilessly shelled, and artillery carried the day. Although a 'little war' continued in the Wicklow mountains for some time afterwards, in effect, after Vinegar Hill, the rebellion in the south-east was over. In defeat, rebel discipline collapsed in some places. After the defeat at New Ross, about loyalists had been killed at a barn in Scullabogue; and now, following the disaster at Vinegar Hill, about 70 Protestant prisoners were piked to death on the bridge at Wexford town.

The army repaid these atrocities with interest: the mopping-up operations after Vinegar Hill resembled, to the fury of the newly-appointed Lord Lieutenant, Marquis Cornwallis, little other than universal rape, plunder and murder. Retribution for the rebel leaders was swift and largely uncompromising.